Acute Effect of COVID-19 Vaccination on Glycemic Profile in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Khaled Hani Aburisheh, Mohammed Khalid Alkhalifah, Mohammad Fahad AlKheraiji, Saleh Ibrahim Alwalan, Mohammed Jamal Anabi, Amjad Salem Alshammari, Amani Ayyed Aldhewaila


Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affected the whole world socially, economically, and medically. People with diabetes mellitus could have higher rates of morbidity and mortality if infected by the virus. New-onset diabetes and diabetic emergencies were, in some cases, first identified after the COVID-19 vaccine. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the acute effect of COVID-19 vaccination on the glycemic parameters of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).

Methods: This was a retrospective observational study that included patients with T1DM older than 14 years old using Freestyle libre sensors and vaccinated with the COVID-19 vaccine. Data were collected from patients electronic medical records and glycemic profile parameters 1 to 2 weeks before and 1 to 2 weeks after the vaccine were extracted from the LibreView system.

Results: Seventy-two vaccines were analyzed from 44 patients with T1DM. There was no acute change of interstitial glucose measures after COVID-19 vaccination; however, there was a significant reduction in time in range and an increase in time above range after vaccination in those who were aged above 28 and had longer duration and better diabetes mellitus (DM) control. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was the only independent factor associated with the change in the glycemic profile after vaccination in multivariate regression analysis.

Conclusion: In our study population, there was no significant change in glycemic parameters after COVID-19 vaccination but those above 28 years old with longer duration of DM and lower HbA1c could have shifted upward their interstitial glucose levels. Precautions could be considered in those groups before receiving the vaccine.

J Endocrinol Metab. 2023;13(4):144-152


COVID-19 vaccines; Diabetes mellitus; Type 1; Glycated hemoglobin; Blood glucose

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