Thyroid Gland Dysfunction and COVID-19 Severity: Is There a Correlation?

Nidal El Khatib, Adi Sharabi-Nov, Raed Farhat, Or Sror-Turkel, Yaniv Avraham, Shlomo Merchavy


Background: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which caused the coronavirus pandemic to break out in 2019 has resulted in a serious health disaster all over the world. It has been suggested that thyroid gland dysfunction in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients can directly or indirectly affect COVID-19 severity and mortality rates. The aim of this study was to examine the possible effect of thyroid dysfunction on the severity and mortality in COVID-19 hospitalized patients.

Methods: This is a retrospective study that included 415 COVID-19 patients, who were admitted to the Ziv Medical Center between April 2020 and October 2021. Clinical and demographic data were collected from patient’s electronic medical records.

Results: Patients with severe COVID-19 disease hospitalized in COVID-19 intensive care unit (ICU) department had significantly lower average level of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels compared with patients with mild or moderate disease in hospitalized patients in COVID-19 ward. Regarding hospitalization length, there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups with a mean of 14.6 days for COVID-19 ICU department and 8.6 days for the COVID-19 ward (P < 0.001). Similarly, the mortality rate also showed a significant difference, with 48.8% in COVID-19 ICU department compared to 10.4% in the COVID-19 ward (P < 0.001). However, it is worth noting that ethnicity, gender, body mass index (BMI), and chronic diseases did not exhibit any significant differences between the two groups. In a multivariate logistic regression model the risk of mortality was three times higher among patients with lowered T4 levels and six times higher among patients with lower TSH levels. Longer duration of hospitalization (odds ratio (OR) = 1.12) and older age (OR = 1.07) were also associated with higher mortality, while T3 was inversely associated (OR = 0.07).

Conclusions: It was suggested that lower thyroid hormones and TSH serum levels were associated with increased severity and mortality in COVID-19 hospitalized patients. Thyroid hormones and TSH levels may serve as additional tools for better evaluation of COVID-19 severity and mortality.

J Endocrinol Metab. 2023;13(3):96-103


Thyroid gland; T3; T4; TSH; COVID-19

Full Text: HTML PDF

Browse  Journals  


Journal of Clinical Medicine Research

Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Journal of Clinical Gynecology and Obstetrics


World Journal of Oncology

Gastroenterology Research

Journal of Hematology


Journal of Medical Cases

Journal of Current Surgery

Clinical Infection and Immunity


Cardiology Research

World Journal of Nephrology and Urology

Cellular and Molecular Medicine Research


Journal of Neurology Research

International Journal of Clinical Pediatrics



Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, bimonthly, ISSN 1923-2861 (print), 1923-287X (online), published by Elmer Press Inc.                     
The content of this site is intended for health care professionals.
This is an open-access journal distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted
non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Creative Commons Attribution license (Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International CC-BY-NC 4.0)

This journal follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals,
the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines, and the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing.

website:   editorial contact:
Address: 9225 Leslie Street, Suite 201, Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 3H6, Canada

© Elmer Press Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed in the published articles are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of the editors and Elmer Press Inc. This website is provided for medical research and informational purposes only and does not constitute any medical advice or professional services. The information provided in this journal should not be used for diagnosis and treatment, those seeking medical advice should always consult with a licensed physician.