The Difference in Glucagon Response to Breakfast Between Non-Obese Patients With Long-Duration Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

Hidetaka Hamasaki


Background: A balanced action of insulin and glucagon is essential for treating diabetes. This study aimed to assess the change in blood glucagon levels from fasting to a postprandial state and to compare them between patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM).

Methods: This study enrolled patients with T1DM (n = 13) who had undetectable serum C-peptide levels (< 0.02 ng/mL) and patients with T2DM (n = 13) whose age, gender, and body mass index were matched to cases (1:1) as controls. Plasma glucose, serum C-peptide, and plasma glucagon in fasting and 2 h after consuming a standard breakfast for diabetic patients were measured and compared between groups.

Results: There were no significant differences in plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels between patients with T1DM and T2DM. However, fasting plasma glucagon levels were significantly lower in patients with T1DM than those in patients with T2DM (19.2 13.0 pg/mL vs. 31.6 18.3 pg/mL, P = 0.029). Furthermore, the glucagons response to a standardized meal for diabetic patients differed between patients with T1DM and T2DM.

Conclusions: The significant difference in glucagon response to the meal may be caused by the abnormal postprandial secretion of glucagon in patients with T1DM. The nutrient ratio of the meal may also influence glucagon secretion.

J Endocrinol Metab. 2022;12(4-5):134-139


Glucagon; C-peptide; Type 1 diabetes; Type 2 diabetes; Standardized meal; Postprandial state

Full Text: HTML PDF

Browse  Journals  


Journal of Clinical Medicine Research

Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Journal of Clinical Gynecology and Obstetrics


World Journal of Oncology

Gastroenterology Research

Journal of Hematology


Journal of Medical Cases

Journal of Current Surgery

Clinical Infection and Immunity


Cardiology Research

World Journal of Nephrology and Urology

Cellular and Molecular Medicine Research


Journal of Neurology Research

International Journal of Clinical Pediatrics



Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, bimonthly, ISSN 1923-2861 (print), 1923-287X (online), published by Elmer Press Inc.                     
The content of this site is intended for health care professionals.
This is an open-access journal distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted
non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Creative Commons Attribution license (Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International CC-BY-NC 4.0)

This journal follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals,
the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines, and the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing.

website:   editorial contact:
Address: 9225 Leslie Street, Suite 201, Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 3H6, Canada

© Elmer Press Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed in the published articles are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of the editors and Elmer Press Inc. This website is provided for medical research and informational purposes only and does not constitute any medical advice or professional services. The information provided in this journal should not be used for diagnosis and treatment, those seeking medical advice should always consult with a licensed physician.