Diabetes Mellitus and the Cardiovascular System

Pavani Kolakalapudi, Bassam Omar


Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an epidemic which affects close to 100 million patients worldwide; the majority being type 2 diabetes mellitus. The rising incidence has resulted in a proportional increase in the frequency of cardiovascular disease attributable to DM, as revealed by various population-based studies. Over the past 50 years, DM has been shown to be an important and independent risk factor in the development of a variety of cardiac conditions, especially vascular disease, primarily through accelerated atherosclerosis. Diabetic neuropathy is a serious complication of DM, which leads to the impairment of cardiovascular autonomic control. Diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy results in heart rate abnormalities, exercise intolerance, orthostatic blood pressure abnormalities, QT interval prolongation, silent ischemia and diabetic cardiomyopathy, all of which lead to increased morbidity and mortality related to diabetes. This conditions remains difficult to diagnose and treat, requiring a multifaceted approach. Inflammation appears to play a central role in accelerating many of the injurious effects of DM on the cardiovascular system. Expression of specific inflammatory markers has been directly linked to some of the known harmful effects of DM on the cardiovascular system, in addition to indirectly potentiating the deleterious effects of other major cardiovascular disease risk factors. Hyperglycemia results in increased intracellular glucose which triggers several pro-inflammatory reactions leading to the production of harmful free radicals and the formation of advanced glycation end products. These have been linked to the development of diabetic atherogenic dyslipidemia, in addition to glycation and loss of the protective effect of high density lipoproteins in diabetic subjects, thereby worsening the atherosclerotic burden in DM. Addressing hyperglycemia, therefore, is only one of many vital components in the treatment of diabetes. Traditional risk factors for heart disease and stroke tend to be further potentiated by the presence of DM, however, even after adequate control of hyperglycemia. Clinical evidence and major clinical guidelines address this conundrum by pointing out unmet needs of adequate cardiovascular protection, and call for aggressive control of risk factors in the diabetic population.

J Endocrinol Metab. 2015;5(6):313-320
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14740/jem324e


Diabetes; Autonomic dysfunction; Diabetic neuropathy

Full Text: HTML PDF

Browse  Journals  


Journal of Clinical Medicine Research

Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Journal of Clinical Gynecology and Obstetrics


World Journal of Oncology

Gastroenterology Research

Journal of Hematology


Journal of Medical Cases

Journal of Current Surgery

Clinical Infection and Immunity


Cardiology Research

World Journal of Nephrology and Urology

Cellular and Molecular Medicine Research


Journal of Neurology Research

International Journal of Clinical Pediatrics



Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, bimonthly, ISSN 1923-2861 (print), 1923-287X (online), published by Elmer Press Inc.                     
The content of this site is intended for health care professionals.
This is an open-access journal distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted
non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Creative Commons Attribution license (Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International CC-BY-NC 4.0)

This journal follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals,
the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines, and the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing.

website: www.jofem.org   editorial contact: editor@jofem.org
Address: 9225 Leslie Street, Suite 201, Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 3H6, Canada

© Elmer Press Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed in the published articles are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of the editors and Elmer Press Inc. This website is provided for medical research and informational purposes only and does not constitute any medical advice or professional services. The information provided in this journal should not be used for diagnosis and treatment, those seeking medical advice should always consult with a licensed physician.