Non-Nutritive Sweeteners and Their Contradictory Effect on the Control of Energetic and Glycemic Homeostasis

Ana Paula Souza Silva, Poliana Guiomar Brasiel, Sheila Cristina Potente Dutra Luquetti

Abstract


Non-nutritive sweeteners (NNSs) gained attention as dietary tools that provide a free sweet taste of energy to foods. However, its health benefits have been questioned. The aim of this review is to present and discuss the effects of NNSs on energy and glycemic homeostasis, as well as the mechanisms involved. Recent studies in animals and humans have shown that consumption of NNSs appears to have a negative effect on the energy and glycemic homeostasis, promoting body weight gain, insulin resistance, and hyperglycemia. The hypotheses proposed to explain these effects are changes in the perception of taste sweet and weakening of the cephalic response, interaction of NNSs with sweet-taste receptors in the intestinal tract, and changes in intestinal microbiota. However, the determinants of energy and glucose homeostasis are diverse, which may explain in part the unclear effects evidenced in many studies. Therefore, other studies are important to clarify the conflicts between the safety of NNSs and metabolic disorders.




J Endocrinol Metab. 2018;8(6):119-125
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/jem547


Keywords


Artificial sweeteners; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Obesity; Weight gain; Insulin resistance

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