Effects of Energy and Carbohydrate Intake on Serum High-Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol Levels

Hidekatsu Yanai, Norio Tada

Abstract


High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a lipoprotein which has anti-atherogenic property by reverse cholesterol transport from the peripheral tissues to liver. Low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) level is associated with the development of coronary artery diseases. We previously studied effects of energy and carbohydrate intake on serum HDL-C to make “Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese 2015”, and reported the results by reviewing papers by 2012. Here we review meta-analyses about the effects of energy and carbohydrate intake on serum HDL-C levels which were published from 2012 to 2018, to make “Dietary Reference Intake for Japanese 2020”, by using PubMed, Embase and Google Scholar. Effects of energy restriction on HDL-C may depend on backgrounds of subjects studied, the ratio of carbohydrate, protein and fat. Low carbohydrate diet may increase HDL-C, which may be due to reduction of body weight and/or amelioration of insulin resistance. Regarding intake of free sugar, further studies including effects of free sugar intake on other risk factors in addition to HDL-C should be performed. Fructose intake may exert no effect on HDL-C; however, the fructose intake equal to or less than 100 g/day may be recommended considering unfavorable effects on triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C).




J Endocrinol Metab. 2018;8(2-3):27-31
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/jem504w


Keywords


Body weight; Carbohydrate; Free sugar; Fructose; High-density lipoprotein

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