The Influence of Hormonal Contraception on Vitamin D Supplementation on Serum 25(OH)D3 Status in Premenopausal Women: A Prospective Double-Blind Placebo Random Controlled Trial

Matthew Alexander Wyon, Roger Wolman, Alan M. Nevill, Alison Barber, Marcia Edwards, Belinda Bowd, Frances Clarke, Janine Bryant, Ross Cloak


Background: A number of cross-sectional studies have highlighted a potential benefit of estrogen-containing contraception on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels. The purpose of the present prospective study was to determine whether oral vitamin D3 supplementation significantly increases serum 25(OH)D more for women taking the estrogen-containing oral contraception than those not taking this medication.

Methods: Thirty-eight premenopausal adult females aged 18 - 45 years old were recruited from a university campus; exclusion criteria included those presently taking vitamin D supplementation, those who stopped or started taking oral contraception in last 6 months and those taking any other form of contraception. A prospective double-blind placebo design was implemented; the dependent variable was serum 25(OH)D and the independent variables were using or not using oral estrogen-containing contraception, and vitamin D3 or placebo supplementation. Participants were tested 4 weeks apart, and blood samples were collected using a capillary blood spot sample method and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. An independent technician prepared the identical supplement bottles with either 100 placebo pills or 100 active vitamin D3 pills (1,000 IU per pill) and participants randomly selected a supplement bottle.

Results: Baseline measurements of 25(OH)D were non-significantly 11% higher in those taking estrogen. ANOVA results revealed a significant two-way interaction between supplementation group (treatment vs. placebo) and treatment period (before vs. after) (P < 0.001), demonstrating a substantial rise in serum 25(OH)D for the treatment group compared with the placebo group. The results also identified a three-way interaction (P = 0.014) on serum 25(OH)D between the three independent variables, with the vitamin D oral contraception group having significantly greater serum 25(OH)D increases (from 45.9 to 98.3 nmol/L) compared with those not taking oral contraception (44.2 - 69.6 nmol/L) (P = 0.019).

Conclusions: The estrogen-containing oral contraception increases serum 25(OH)D in premenopausal women with a magnified effect in those taking vitamin D supplementation. Future studies need to examine the relationship between estrogen, vitamin D supplementation, serum 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone and other markers of bone metabolisms.

J Endocrinol Metab. 2017;7(4):117-121


Premenopausal; Vitamin D; Estrogen; Contraception; Female; Serum 25(OH)D; Intervention

Full Text: HTML PDF

Browse  Journals  


Journal of Clinical Medicine Research

Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Journal of Clinical Gynecology and Obstetrics


World Journal of Oncology

Gastroenterology Research

Journal of Hematology


Journal of Medical Cases

Journal of Current Surgery

Clinical Infection and Immunity


Cardiology Research

World Journal of Nephrology and Urology

Cellular and Molecular Medicine Research


Journal of Neurology Research

International Journal of Clinical Pediatrics



Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, bimonthly, ISSN 1923-2861 (print), 1923-287X (online), published by Elmer Press Inc.                     
The content of this site is intended for health care professionals.
This is an open-access journal distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted
non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Creative Commons Attribution license (Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International CC-BY-NC 4.0)

This journal follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals,
the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines, and the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing.

website:   editorial contact:
Address: 9225 Leslie Street, Suite 201, Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 3H6, Canada

© Elmer Press Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed in the published articles are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of the editors and Elmer Press Inc. This website is provided for medical research and informational purposes only and does not constitute any medical advice or professional services. The information provided in this journal should not be used for diagnosis and treatment, those seeking medical advice should always consult with a licensed physician.