Cigarette Smoking as a Relative Risk Factor for Metabolic Syndrome

Ihab I. Al-khalifa, Shaimaa M. Mohammed, Zahraa M. Ali


Background: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a clustering of risk factors, such as central obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension and atherosclerosis. Cigarette smoking is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular diseases; therefore, smoking may be considered as an important risk factor for MS. Smokers are at greater risk than non-smokers to become insulin-resistant and develop cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to explore the association of cigarette smoking with MS and its components among Iraqi adults who were already smokers for more than 10 years.

Methods: This clinical study was conducted on 80 adult Iraqi subjects, aged 50 - 70 years. Subjects were divided into two groups according to their smoking status. Standard questionnaire was completed regarding smoking habits, medications, past medical history and physical activity. Blood pressure measurements and biochemical analysis involving fasting serum glucose and serum lipid profile (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and triglycerides (TG)) were done. The diagnosis of MS was based on the American Heart Association (AHA) and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) criteria.

Results: According to the AHA definition, this study showed that MS was higher in smokers than in non-smokers with the relative risk for MS. Furthermore, obesity and dyslipidemia were found to be in 65.6% and 80% of both study groups, respectively. Systolic (P = 0.026) and diastolic blood pressures (P = 0.03) were significantly higher in smokers compared with non-smokers. The present study clearly showed that total serum cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol serum levels were higher in the smoker group; however, a statistical significance was not obtained. Serum TG level was significantly higher (P = 0.025) in smokers than in non-smokers. The remarkable increase in the prevalence of MS among the smokers and non-smokers was correlated with the involvement of more than one component of MS according to the AHA and NHLBI criteria.

Conclusions: The present study showed that tobacco smoke exposure increases the incidence of or worsens MS. Obesity and overweight give a comparable risk to smoking in adult subjects. Reducing the rate of cigarette smoking provides a beneficial effect on cardiovascular risk factors of this syndrome, such as body weight, blood pressure, blood cholesterol, and serum glucose.

J Endocrinol Metab. 2016;6(6):178-182


Metabolic syndrome; Cigarette smoking; Obesity

Full Text: HTML PDF

Browse  Journals  


Journal of Clinical Medicine Research

Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Journal of Clinical Gynecology and Obstetrics


World Journal of Oncology

Gastroenterology Research

Journal of Hematology


Journal of Medical Cases

Journal of Current Surgery

Clinical Infection and Immunity


Cardiology Research

World Journal of Nephrology and Urology

Cellular and Molecular Medicine Research


Journal of Neurology Research

International Journal of Clinical Pediatrics



Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, bimonthly, ISSN 1923-2861 (print), 1923-287X (online), published by Elmer Press Inc.                     
The content of this site is intended for health care professionals.
This is an open-access journal distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted
non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Creative Commons Attribution license (Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International CC-BY-NC 4.0)

This journal follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals,
the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines, and the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing.

website:   editorial contact:
Address: 9225 Leslie Street, Suite 201, Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 3H6, Canada

© Elmer Press Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed in the published articles are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of the editors and Elmer Press Inc. This website is provided for medical research and informational purposes only and does not constitute any medical advice or professional services. The information provided in this journal should not be used for diagnosis and treatment, those seeking medical advice should always consult with a licensed physician.