J Endocrinol Metab
Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 1923-2861 print, 1923-287X online, Open Access
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Letter to the Editor

Volume 1, Number 2, June 2011, pages 92-93


Serum Copper, Zinc and Selenium Levels in Subjects With and Without Metabolic Syndrome

Athanasia Papazafiropouloua, c, Eystathios Sklirosb, Aggelos Ioannidisa, Ourania Apostoloua, Petroula Stamatakia, Alexios Sotiropoulosa

a3rd Department of Internal Medicine and Center of Diabetes, General Hospital of Nikaia “Ag. Panteleimon” – Piraeus, Greece
bHealth Centre of Nemea, Nemea, Korinthos, Greece
cCorresponding author: Athanasia Papazafiropoulou, 3rd Department of Internal Medicine and Center of Diabetes, General Hospital of Nikaia “Ag. Panteleimon” – Piraeus, 3 D.Mantouvalou Street, GR-184 54 Nikaia, Greece

Manuscript accepted for publication May 25, 2011
Short title: Serum Copper, Zinc and Selenium and Metabolic Syndrome
doi: https://doi.org/10.4021/jem13w

To the Editor▴Top 

Metabolic syndrome (MS) is defined as the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors and is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality [1, 2]. Oxidative stress has been hypothesized as one of the main mechanisms leading to MS [3]. Since copper, zinc and selenium are co-factors of antioxidant enzymes a lot of studies in different regions have been conducted in order to find possible differences in these trace element levels in subjects with or without MS [4-7]. However, their results were conflicting [4-7]. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare serum copper, zinc and selenium levels in subjects with or without MS.

A total of 51 subjects (17 males/34 females, mean age ± standard deviation (SD): 69.0 ± 9.4 years, body mass index (BMI) ± SD: 33.8 ± 5.1 Kg/m2) with MS and 54 subjects without MS (22 males/32 females, mean age ± SD: 69.8 ± 9.7 years, BMI ± SD: 29.6 ± 3.7 Kg/m2), consecutively selected from the outpatient clinic of our hospital were enrolled into the study. Subjects having three or more of the criteria according to the NCEP ATP III report [8] were defined as having the MS. A thorough physical examination was performed and a detailed medical history was obtained for each participant. All measurements were performed in the morning, after 10 - 12 hours fast. Blood samples were drawn for measurement of serum copper, zinc and selenium levels. Serum levels of copper, zinc and selenium were determined by use of atomic mass spectrometry (ZEEnit 700, Analytical Jena, Germany).

Trace element levels did not differ between subjects with or without MS: copper levels (120.7 ± 35.5 vs. 117.4 ± 39.2 µm/l, P = 0.65), zinc levels (91.5 ± 28.3 vs. 94.6 ± 23.4 µm/l, P = 0.54) and selenium levels (106.4 ± 33.8 vs. 102.8 ± 28.7µm/l, P = 0.56). Univariate regression analysis showed that serum copper and selenium levels did not correlate with any of the MS components. Serum zinc levels correlated negatively only with glucose levels (beta = -0.50, P = 0.03) (Table 1).

Table 1.
Click to view
Table 1. Correlations Between Serum Copper, Zinc and Selenium Levels and Components of Metabolic Syndrome
 

The present study showed that serum copper, zinc and selenium levels are not associated with the presence of MS. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey showed that serum selenium levels were similar in subjects with or without MS [5]. Furthermore, the Supplementation en Vitamines et Mineraux Antioxydants (SU.VI.MAX) trial [4], showed that serum selenium concentrations were not associated with MS. However, a recent study in Europe showed that only selenium was positively associated with a higher odd of MS in women but not in men. This association was not confirmed between copper or zinc and MS [9]. With regard to zinc the lack of association reported in our study is in accordance with the results of the SU.VI.MAX trial [4]. With regard to zinc and copper the lack of association is in accordance with the results of a study conducted in Iran [7].

In conclusion, the present study showed that serum copper, zinc and selenium levels are not associated with the components or the presence of MS. The only observed association was between serum zinc and glucose levels.


References▴Top 
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  2. Isomaa B, Almgren P, Tuomi T, Forsen B, Lahti K, Nissen M, Taskinen MR, et al. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care 2001;24(4):683-689.
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  3. Roberts CK, Sindhu KK. Oxidative stress and metabolic syndrome. Life Sci 2009;84(21-22):705-712.
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  4. Czernichow S, Vergnaud AC, Galan P, Arnaud J, Favier A, Faure H, Huxley R, et al. Effects of long-term antioxidant supplementation and association of serum antioxidant concentrations with risk of metabolic syndrome in adults. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;90(2):329-335.
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  8. Report of the Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care 1997;20(7):1183-1197.
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  9. Arnaud J, de Lorgeril M, Akbaraly T, Salen P, Arnout J, Cappuccio FP, van Dongen MC, et al. Gender differences in copper, zinc and selenium status in diabetic-free metabolic syndrome European population - The IMMIDIET study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2010.
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Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, bimonthly, ISSN 1923-2861 (print), 1923-287X (online), published by Elmer Press Inc.        
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