Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 1923-2861 print, 1923-287X online, Open Access
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Volume 7, Number 6, December 2017, pages 163-171

Traumatic Brain Injury and the Gastrointestinal Tract: The Role of Female Sexual Hormones


Figure 1.
Figure 1. Brain-gut interactions. Some gastrointestinal dysfunction following TBI declared.


Table 1. The Relationships Between Traumatic Brain Injury, Sex Hormones Status and Gastrointestinal Tract and Their Underlying Mechanisms
Compound of interestModel of studyUnderlying mechanisms of the observed resultsReferences
IBS: irritable bowel syndrome; HRT: hormone replacement therapy; ICH: intracranial hypertension; ICP: intracranial pressure.
ICHChange in gastric volume, following an ICP increase to 20, 40 and 60 mm Hg, respectively.ICH decreases the gastric volume by increasing gastric tonus in anesthetized rats.[48]
ICHAmplitude and frequency of gastric contractions after ICH.An increase in ICP increases the strength of gastric contractions. Increased amplitudes, without frequency changes.[49]
IBSMeasurement of lower level of luteinizing hormone in middle-aged men & elevated level of sex hormone-binding globulin in young men.Generally more prevalent diarrhea (compared to women with IBS).[50, 51]
Hormone replacement therapyCheck the estrogen and progesterone supplementationIncreased prevalence of IBS in postmenopausal women during HRT, Prolongation of IBS symptoms to a later.[52]
Late luteal phase (pre menses)Evaluation of estrogen and progesterone levelsExacerbation of bowel symptoms. Increased bloating.[53, 54]
Menstruation (menses)Study of lowest levels of estrogen and progesteroneExacerbation of bowel symptoms. Increased abdominal pain/discomfort.[55-57]
PregnancyPhysiological hyper- estrogenemia and hyperprolactinemiaDecreased pain sensitivity and alleviation of many chronic pain syndromes. Exacerbation of constipation (prolonged gastrointestinal transit).[58, 59]
MenopauseMeasurement of reduction in ovarian hormonesHigh prevalence of constipation and somatic discomfort syndromes.[60-62]